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Earlier, such information was used in the investigation of the Myyrmanni bombing. The UK's Department for Transport mandated smart cards to administer travel entitlements for elderly and disabled residents.
These schemes let residents use the cards for more than just bus passes. They can also be used for taxi and other concessionary transport. One example is the "Smartcare go" scheme provided by Ecebs.
Other schemes in the UK include period travel passes, carnets of tickets or day passes and stored value which can be used to pay for journeys.
Other concessions for school pupils, students and job seekers are also supported. Many smart transport schemes include the use of low cost smart tickets for simple journeys, day passes and visitor passes.
Examples include Glasgow SPT subway. Confidex smart media. In Sweden, as of , smart cards have started to be phased out and replaced by smart phone apps.
The phone apps have less cost, at least for the transit operators who don't need any electronic equipment the riders provide that.
The riders are able buy tickets anywhere and don't need to load money onto smart cards. The smart cards are still in use for foreseeable future as of Net and offline and as a memory support to save game progress.
Thanks this agreement, the three companies are now using a unified card reader in their arcade cabinets, so that players are able to use their card, no matter if a Banapassport, a e-Amusement Pass or an Aime, with hardware and ID services of all three manufacturers.
A common logo for Amusement IC cards has been created, and this is now displayed on compatible cards from all three companies. In January , Taito announced  that his Nesica card was also joining the Amusement IC agreement with the other three companies.
Smart cards can be used as a security token. Mozilla's Firefox web browser can use smart cards to store certificates for use in secure web browsing.
Some disk encryption systems , such as VeraCrypt and Microsoft's BitLocker , can use smart cards to securely hold encryption keys, and also to add another layer of encryption to critical parts of the secured disk.
GnuPG , the well known encryption suite, also supports storing keys in a smart card. Smart cards are also used for single sign-on to log on to computers.
Smart cards are being provided to students at some schools and colleges. Smart health cards can improve the security and privacy of patient information, provide a secure carrier for portable medical records , reduce health care fraud , support new processes for portable medical records, provide secure access to emergency medical information, enable compliance with government initiatives e.
Smart cards are widely used to encrypt digital television streams. VideoGuard is a specific example of how smart card security worked.
The Malaysian government promotes MyKad as a single system for all smart-card applications. MyKad started as identity cards carried by all citizens and resident non-citizens.
Available applications now include identity, travel documents, drivers license, health information, an electronic wallet, ATM bank-card, public toll-road and transit payments, and public key encryption infrastructure.
Smart cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant.
The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are, however, several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state.
Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electric current required for certain encryption or decryption operations.
This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA. Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well.
Smart cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, solvents, or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor.
Although such techniques may involve a risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information e. The benefits of smart cards are directly related to the volume of information and applications that are programmed for use on a card.
Multi-factor and proximity authentication can and has been embedded into smart cards to increase the security of all services on the card. For example, a smart card can be programmed to only allow a contactless transaction if it is also within range of another device like a uniquely paired mobile phone.
This can significantly increase the security of the smart card. Governments and regional authorities save money because of improved security, better data and reduced processing costs.
These savings help reduce public budgets or enhance public services. Individuals have better security and more convenience with using smart cards that perform multiple services.
For example, they only need to replace one card if their wallet is lost or stolen. The data storage on a card can reduce duplication, and even provide emergency medical information.
The first main advantage of smart cards is their flexibility. Smart cards have multiple functions which simultaneously can be an ID, a credit card, a stored-value cash card, and a repository of personal information such as telephone numbers or medical history.
The card can be easily replaced if lost, and, the requirement for a PIN or other form of security provides additional security from unauthorised access to information by others.
At the first attempt to use it illegally, the card would be deactivated by the card reader itself. The second main advantage is security. Smart cards can be electronic key rings, giving the bearer ability to access information and physical places without need for online connections.
They are encryption devices, so that the user can encrypt and decrypt information without relying on unknown, and therefore potentially untrustworthy, appliances such as ATMs.
Smart cards are very flexible in providing authentication at different level of the bearer and the counterpart.
Finally, with the information about the user that smart cards can provide to the other parties, they are useful devices for customizing products and services.
Smart cards can be used in electronic commerce , over the Internet, though the business model used in current electronic commerce applications still cannot use the full potential of the electronic medium.
An advantage of smart cards for electronic commerce is their use customize services. For example, in order for the service supplier to deliver the customized service, the user may need to provide each supplier with their profile, a boring and time-consuming activity.
A smart card can contain a non-encrypted profile of the bearer, so that the user can get customized services even without previous contacts with the supplier.
The plastic or paper card in which the chip is embedded is fairly flexible. The larger the chip, the higher the probability that normal use could damage it.
Cards are often carried in wallets or pockets, a harsh environment for a chip and antenna in contactless cards.
However, for large banking systems, failure-management costs can be more than offset by fraud reduction. The production, use and disposal of PVC plastic is known to be more harmful to the environment than other plastics.
If the account holder's computer hosts malware , the smart card security model may be broken. Malware can override the communication both input via keyboard and output via application screen between the user and the application.
Man-in-the-browser malware e. Banks like Fortis and Belfius in Belgium and Rabobank " random reader " in the Netherlands combine a smart card with an unconnected card reader to avoid this problem.
The customer enters a challenge received from the bank's website, a PIN and the transaction amount into the reader.
The reader returns an 8-digit signature. This signature is manually entered into the personal computer and verified by the bank, preventing point-of-sale-malware from changing the transaction amount.
Smart cards have also been the targets of security attacks. These attacks range from physical invasion of the card's electronics, to non-invasive attacks that exploit weaknesses in the card's software or hardware.
The usual goal is to expose private encryption keys and then read and manipulate secure data such as funds. Once an attacker develops a non-invasive attack for a particular smart card model, he or she is typically able to perform the attack on other cards of that model in seconds, often using equipment that can be disguised as a normal smart card reader.
Tamper-evident and audit features in a smart card system help manage the risks of compromised cards. Another problem is the lack of standards for functionality and security.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Chip card. Pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits for identification or payment functions.
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June See also: Payment card. Further information: EMV. See also: Contactless payment. Main article: Contactless smart card.
Main articles: Contactless smart card and Credit card. Main article: List of smart cards. Further information: eHealth , health informatics , and electronic health record.
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Credit , charge and debit cards. Cash advance Charge-off. Grace period Introductory rate Universal default. Card not present transaction Chargeback Controlled payment number Dispute.
Fee Surcharge Card scheme. Cirrus Pulse Plus. Card security code Chargeback fraud Credit card fraud Credit card hijacking.
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